There are several vital points you require to understand before you can acquire an ozone generator. Before going into details, nevertheless, it is very important to note that we are speaking about corona discharge type ozone generators. These are the most crucial type of commercial/industrial ozone generators. There are other types of ozone generators, yet non corona discharge systems are primarily for usage in tiny scale applications, generating usually less than half an extra pound each day or much less than 10 grams per hour of ozone.
This short article will certainly examine the vital selection factors and just how it associates with numerous applications for ozone as well as the impact on the expense of an ozone generator.
The vital aspects consist of:
1. Output: This is just how much ozone the machine makes, generally priced quote in grams per hour or pounds each day.
2. Focus: Ozone can be generated at different concentrations ranging from 1-12 weight percent. The concentration of ozone has an effect on most applications and likewise impacts equipment outcome.
3. Gas Feed: you should have a resource of feed gas including oxygen, there are 3 options: dry air, oxygen focused from air or purchased oxygen (either as fluid oxygen (LOX) or pressed oxygen in cylinders).
4. Generator Air Conditioning: Ozone generator produce warmth that must be eliminated, the alternatives for removing this heat are air cooling or water cooling.
Choosing the proper mix of attributes depends strongly on the application. For instance, in water therapy applications greater concentrations of ozone are utilized while in air therapy applications reduced concentrations can be selected.
Ozone Generator Result
This is one of the most crucial factor in choosing an ozone generator. The quantity of ozone needed is based upon the application needs. If the ozone is being utilized for elimination of natural impurities from water, the quantity of ozone is symmetrical to the amount of natural in the water, the performance of the ozone organic response and the efficiency of dissolving the ozone right into the water.
As a particular example, ozone is typically used to minimize chemical oxygen need (COD) in water. COD is measured in ppm (milligrams per litre – mg/l). It usually takes 2 mg of ozone per mg of COD to get rid of the COD. So, if we needed to deal with 10,000 liters per hr of water including 50 ppm of COD we would certainly require:
10,000 liters/hour X 50 mg/l COD x 2 mg Ozone/mg COD = 1,000,000 mg/hour
1,000,000 mg/hour = 1,000 g/hour = 1 kg/hour
So, we would need to liquify 1 kg/h of ozone (or 52.8 extra pounds each day of ozone).
Much less than 100% of the ozone injected in the water liquifies, so we require to know the ozone transfer performance. A well designed venturi shot system can liquify at least 90% of the ozone. For the instance above, you would certainly need 1 kg/h ÷ 0.90 = 1.11 kg/h (58.7 pounds daily of ozone). This is the amount of ozone we would need to produce at the targeted focus to dissolve the 1 kg/h of ozone into water.
Vital: An offered system will certainly generate less ozone as the focus of ozone boosts. Ozone transfer performance, the rate at which ozone dissolves into water enhances with increasing ozone focus. Both variables will establish the last size of the equipment required.
Figuring out the quantity of ozone required, besides the simplest applications, needs laboratory or pilot studies combined with an engineering examination to choose the correct balance in between ozone dosage, concentration as well as generator size. Usually, an ozone generator firm will certainly not have the ability to offer this details. If they can aid, there will be an added cost for performing the researches.
As noted over, ozone concentration can impact both the effectiveness of ozone in an offered application and also the amount of ozone that can be created from an offered ozone generator. Basically, high focus ozone costs extra, however can do much more in particular applications. Business corona discharge systems generate anywhere from 1 weight percent ozone to 12 weight percent ozone. Gas therapy applications typically utilize the 1-3 percent variety while water treatment application usually use 5-10 percent.
An essential aspect of ozone focus is in contrasting various ozone generators. Makers make use of various bases for declaring the small result of an ozone generator. Generally, you need to review the small print to see what focus they make use of to declare a given manufacturing price.
As an instance:.
Result (g/h) Focus (%) Price.
Provider # 1 60 6 $5,500.
Supplier # 2 60 4 $3,800.
At comparable concentrations the results would certainly look different:.
Distributor # 2 60 6 $6,000.
( g/h = grams/hour).
So, to fairly contrast devices you require to know the amount of ozone created at a concentration of interest together with the cost of the generator. This will permit you to compare ozone generators “apples to apples”.
Ozone Generator Gas Feed.
Ozone generators can work on different oxygen sources such dry air, focused oxygen or bought oxygen as a feed gas. Initially, a brief discussion of feed gases. Initially, ozone generators mostly collaborated with air as the feed gas. Air includes about 20% oxygen as well as just the oxygen can be transformed to ozone. Making use of air as the feed gas, the optimal financial concentration of ozone that can be obtained is about 3 weight percent.
Additionally, the air should be exceptionally completely dry because dampness decreases ozone outcome as well as will certainly damage the ozone generator. To create a sensible focus of ozone, the air should have a dry skin as determined by the humidity of regarding -100 degrees Fahrenheit. This means that in a million components of air there is only one part water. This level of dryness calls for unique clothes dryers to eliminate the humidity. Cooled clothes dryers found on some compressors can just reach concerning a humidity of -40 levels Fahrenheit.
Utilizing a feed gas with oxygen focus higher than 90% allows the ozone focus to increase to the 5-10 percent array. On top of that, ozone generators generate higher results of ozone in regards to pounds per day or grams per hour using oxygen versus air.
Purchased oxygen typically is extremely completely dry due to the production process utilized. It can be purchased as a pressed gas in cylinders or as a fluid. The volume that can be saved as a pressed gas is a lot smaller than in liquid form. So, unless the ozone generator is being just used for short quantities of time, compressed gas is possibly not a good feed gas option.
Liquid oxygen, occasionally described as LOX, can be supplied in little containers or delivered in vehicle lots amounts. It has to be evaporated to the gas stage before use. It is the most economical form of oxygen if the oxygen manufacturing plant is not as well far.
Another option is to concentrate oxygen from air in a procedure known as stress swing absorption (PSA). In this procedure a product called a molecular sieve takes in both water and also nitrogen from air leaving primarily oxygen in the gas stream. Oxygen concentrations of 90-95% are conveniently achieved. The procedure is performed in both small scale along with big commercial systems. Tiny applications include portable oxygen systems for individuals that need supplemental oxygen for breathing.
So, in summary the primary feed gases for ozone are completely dry air, PSA oxygen or fluid oxygen. Some ozone generators can run on all three feed gas, yet this is not always the instance. Some ozone generator suppliers develop their systems to run either on air or some type of higher concentration oxygen. It is important to know this beforehand because it could not be feasible to switch once the device is bought. The key point here is that if you want higher focus, you should utilize oxygen feed gas system with a generator made to use this gas.
Ozone Generator Cooling.
All ozone generators create warmth as a result of the ozone manufacturing process. The generator needs to be kept one’s cool considering that as the gas temperature enhances the ozone will certainly break down back right into oxygen making the procedure inefficient. Ozone generator manufacturers give their ozone outcome and focus data based upon a particular operating temperature level, normally 68-72 degrees Fahrenheit.
Every degree above the specified temperature laboratory ozone generator level lead to a decrease of manufacturing. As an example, for every level rise in temperature the price of ozone production decreases by 0.6% in some systems. So, if the device was supposed to run at 72 levels as well as it is in fact run at 82 degrees the manufacturing would certainly be minimized by 6%. Some generators shut themselves down totally at certain temperature levels to stop damages. So cooling is an important issue for the generator.
There are 2 common cooling approaches, air cooling with fans and also water air conditioning. Air air conditioning is much less reliable and also reduces the dimension of the ozone generator that can be developed. In general, ozone generation of over 10 extra pound each day can not be readily performed with air cooled down ozone systems.
Water cooled systems can be found in several variants. Closed loop systems make use of a water refrigerator to cool down the water and also cycle it continually with the ozone generator. Water generally goes into the ozone generator at around 60 degrees F as well as leaves at 70 degrees F.
Indirect air conditioning loops using ground water or other water resources are also made use of. Right here a warmth exchanger has one side attached to the ozone generator with a recycling loophole and beyond a when through circulation of water available at the website. Usually the water temperature level is more than optimum as well as a larger generator must be acquired to make up for the loss of production.
The option of the kind of water cooling and also making use of a chiller is based upon a design research to balance the expense of the boosted generator dimension with the expense of chilling the water.
To sum up the bottom lines:.
1. Define the application thoroughly to figure out the quantity and also concentration of ozone needed. If you do not understand the proper amount of ozone called for agreement with a capable lab or design company to accomplish the required researches.
2. See to it to contrast ozone manufacturing of different ozone generators at the exact same ozone focus to get a reasonable comparison of cost.
3. For applications needing more than 5 percent ozone, oxygen will be needed for the feed gas. This will be common for most water treatment applications.
4. For applications requiring reduced focus of ozone, much less than 3 percent, dry air is most likely one of the most affordable solution. These would commonly be applications for air treatment, such as smell control or control of air borne bacteria.
5. For applications of much less than 10 extra pounds daily (much less than 190 g/h) air cooled down systems might be suitable, yet above this level water cooled down systems will likely be a lot more cost-effective.